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中国农村6~11岁小学生忽视评价常模的研制
作者:潘建平 杨武悦 陈晶琦 席卫平 张慧颖 彭玉林 古桂雄 张雅琴 钟朝晖 焦锋 秦锐 李骏 褚英 杨建平 王维清 马乐 滕红 高引莉 应艳红 武万良 杨文娟 刘婷

摘要:

目的  研制出适合中国国情的农村小学生忽视评价常模。方法  根据多阶段分层整群抽样原则,从全国7个省、2个直辖市共计28个县中抽取农村小学生进行现场问卷调查。调查问卷是自行设计、多次预试验修订并经专家评审后确定的。两种忽视评价问卷(6~8、9~11岁)分别获得有效样本2 792名和3 070名,共计5 862名。经过项目分析、因素分析、信度与效度分析确定常模量表并检验其可靠性与稳定性,采用百分位数法确定量表的评价标准,最终完成常模研制。结果  两种常模量表最终保留题项数分别为69、58个,均包含身体、情感、医疗、教育、安全和社会6个忽视层面。两组均进行了4次因素分析,信度检验结果显示,两种量表的因素负荷量分别在0.290~0.700和0.276~0.729之间,Cronbach′α值分别为0.924、0.929,折半系数分别为0.891、0.904,其重测信度分别为0.559、0.892,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),其中6~8岁组医疗忽视层面的重测信度无统计学意义,但非常接近界值点(P=0.054);外部效度检验结果显示,两种量表均能客观反映受试对象受忽视的状况(P<0.05),但是被试者对忽视的主观感受与客观评价不够一致。6~8岁与9~11岁忽视量表判断受试儿童是否受到忽视的界值点分别为159、137分;经调整后分别为160、135分。结论  本研究开发的两种常模量表均具有良好的鉴别力、信度、效度和稳定性,在此基础上研制的常模是符合中国国情的农村小学生忽视评价常模。

关键词:中国;儿童;忽视;农村;常模

Abstract:

Objective  To develop a standard Neglect Evaluation Scale which is suitable for rural primary school students in China.Methods  According to the principle of multi-stage stratified cluster sampling, a field investigation was conducted among primary school students in 28 counties from 7 provinces and 2 municipalities. The questionnaires were self-designed, and determined by multiple rounds of pilots and revisions. Among 5 862 students, 2 792 (6-8 years′ old) and 3 070 (9-11 years′ old) were investigated by using two kinds of Neglect Evaluation questionnaires, respectively. After project analysis, factor analysis, reliability and validity analysis, the reliability and stability of the scale were tested. Then percentile method was used to determine the evaluation standard to develop and finalize the formal scale.Results  The numbers of the remaining items for 6-8 year-old group and 9-11 year-old group is 69 and 58, respectively, both of which contain six levels of neglect, including body, emotion, health care, education, security, and society. 4 times of factor analysis were conducted in both of the two groups. The factor loadings in these two groups were 0.290-0.700 and 0.276-0.729 respectively. Reliability test results showed that the two kinds of scales′ Cronbach alpha coefficient were 0.924 and 0.929 respectively, split-half reliability were 0.891 and 0.904 respectively, the retest reliability were 0.559 and 0.892 respectively, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The retest reliability among 6-8 year-old group in medical neglect level had no statistical significance, but was close to the cut-off point (P=0.054). The test results of external validity indicated that both of the two scales could reflect the neglect status of the subjects (P<0.05), but the subjective and objective evaluation towards neglect were not consistent. The cut-off points for judging whether the children were neglected or not among 6-8 year-old and 9-11 year-old groups were 159 and 137 respectively; and the adjusted values were 160 and 135 respectively.Conclusion  The two norm scales developed by this study showed good discriminability, reliability, validity, and stability. The norms developed on the basis of the scales was suitable for the situation of rural students in primary schools in China.

Key words: China;Child;Neglect;Rural;Norm

发表日期:2014/6

引用本文:

图/表:

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T001

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T001

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T002

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T002

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T003

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T003

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T004

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T004

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T005

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T005

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T006

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T006

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T007:表7 两个年龄组忽视量表在分析过程中删除及保留题项情况(个)

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T007:表7 两个年龄组忽视量表在分析过程中删除及保留题项情况(个)

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T008:表8 两种忽视评价量表界值点的划定与调整(分)

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T008:表8 两种忽视评价量表界值点的划定与调整(分)

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T009:表9 中国农村6~8岁(小学1~3年级)小学生忽视评价常模量表(由家长填写)

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T009:表9 中国农村6~8岁(小学1~3年级)小学生忽视评价常模量表(由家长填写)

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T010:表10 中国农村9~11岁(4~6年级)小学生忽视评价常模量表(由学生本人填写)

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2014.06.011.T010:表10 中国农村9~11岁(4~6年级)小学生忽视评价常模量表(由学生本人填写)

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