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济南市社区居民急性上呼吸道感染与流感样病例发病及其疫苗接种情况
作者:刘营 宋绍霞 王伟 耿兴义 刘稳 韩德彪 刘倜 吴巨龙 李忠 王显军 毕振强

摘要:

目的  分析2015年济南市社区居民急性上呼吸道感染病例和流感样病例发病、就诊以及2014年流感疫苗接种情况。方法  于2015年2月8–11日,采用抽签法和方便抽样方法从济南市选取在济南市居住3个月以上的家庭,以家庭内所有成员作为调查对象,调查2015年1月8日至2月7日急性上呼吸道感染及流感样病例发病情况。本研究共调查410户1 300名居民,回收有效问卷1 241份,有效率95.5%。以2010年全国分年龄的城市人口学统计资料为基础,利用直接标准化法估计济南市社区居民急性上呼吸道感染、流感样病例罹患率和流感疫苗接种率。采用χ2检验比较不同特征调查对象的发病及疫苗接种情况。结果  1 241名调查对象中,急性上呼吸道感染罹患率为30.2%(375例),标化罹患率为29.1%;流感样病例的罹患率为6.1%(76例),标化罹患率为5.4%;5.3%(66例)接种过流感疫苗,标化接种率为3.8%。急性上呼吸道感染病例中,各年龄组罹患率差异具有统计学意义(χ2=17.121,P=0.002),0~4岁组较高,为45.4%(44例),15~24岁组较低,为26.5%(27例);38.9%(146例)的病例选择去不同级别医院就诊,其中,37.7%(55例)的病例到县区级以上医院治疗,37.7%(55例)的病例选择社区医院,24.6%(36例)的病例选择个体诊所就诊。流感样病例中,各年龄组罹患率差异有统计学意义(χ2=76.79,P<0.001),0~4岁组较高为22.7%(22例),25~59与≥60岁组较低,分别为3.1%(22例)和3.2%(6例);81.6%(62例)的病例选择去医院就诊,其中53.2%(33例)的病例选择县区级以上医院,33.9%(21例)的病例选择社区医院,12.9%(8例)的病例选择个体诊所就诊。结论  济南市社区居民急性上呼吸道感染罹患率较高,流感样病例罹患率较低,0~4岁是高发人群;病例在大医院就诊比例较高;流感疫苗接种率总体偏低。

关键词:呼吸道感染;流感样病例;罹患率;流感疫苗;横断面调查

Abstract:

Objective  To analyze the status of acute upper respiratory infection and influenza-like illness (ILI) among community residents in Jinan in 2015, and to make a understand of the patient's medical treatment behavior and influenza vaccination coverage status in 2014.Methods  Balloting method and convenient sampling method were used to launch a household survey. The residents who had been in Jinan for more than 3 months were selected, to investigate the residents' attack ratio of acute upper respiratory and influenza-like from Jan. 8 to Feb. 7, 2015. Totally, 1 300 persons from 410 families were involved in this survey which recovered 1 241 valid questionnaires with the efficiency of 95.5%. Based on the national age-urban demographic statistics in 2010, the attack rates of acute respiratory infections, influenza-like illness were estimated by the direct standardization method, and the influenza vaccination rates were also calculated in this study. χ2-test method was used to compare the different status of incidence and vaccination among residents with different features.Results  The attack rate of acute upper respiratory infection and influenza-like illness in Jinan from January 8, 2015 to February 7, 2015 were 30.2% (375 cases), and 6.1% (76 cases), respectively, with a standardized rate of 29.1% and 5.4%. 5.3% (66 cases) of the residents have vaccinated with the influenza vaccine inoculation, with an adjusted rate of 3.8%. The attack rate difference of acute upper respiratory tract infections was statistically significant between each age group (χ2=17.121, P= 0.002). The 0-4 age group had a highest attack rate (45.4%) of acute respiratory infection, while the 15-24 age group got the lowest (26.5%). 38.9% (146 cases) of patients went for a treatment in hospital. Among them, 37.7% (55 cases) of them selected the county level hospitals for treatment, 37.7% (55 cases) selected the community level hospitals, and 24.6% (36 cases) selected the individual clinic. Significant differences of influenza-like illness attack rate between each age group were also found in this study (χ2=76.79, P<0.001). 0-4 age group had the highest attack rate (22.7%). 81.6% (62 cases) of the ILI sought treatment in the hospital, of which 53.2% (33 cases) selected county level hospital or above, and 33.9% (21 cases) selected community hospital, and 12.9% (8 cases) selected the individual clinic.Conclusion  The attack rate of acute upper respiratory infections among the residents of Jinan was high, whereas that of influenza-like illness was relatively low. 0-4 age group had a higher risk of ILI than other age groups. Most of the cases were likely to take the treatment in large hospitals. In general, the coverage rate of influenza vaccination was relatively low.

Key words: Respiratory tract infections;Influenza-like illness;Attack rate;Influenza vaccine;Cross-section study

发表日期:2015/12

引用本文:

图/表:

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2015.12.003.T001:表1 调查对象与2010年全国城市人口年龄和性别构成比[n(%)]

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2015.12.003.T001:表1 调查对象与2010年全国城市人口年龄和性别构成比[n(%)]

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2015.12.003.T002:表2 2015年1月8日至2月7日济南市社区居民急性上呼吸道感染和流感样病例年龄别分布

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2015.12.003.T002:表2 2015年1月8日至2月7日济南市社区居民急性上呼吸道感染和流感样病例年龄别分布

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2015.12.003.T003:表3 2014年济南市不同年龄社区居民流感疫苗接种情况

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2015.12.003.T003:表3 2014年济南市不同年龄社区居民流感疫苗接种情况

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