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职业紧张及其相关因素对列车司机抑郁症状的影响
作者:周文慧 谷桂珍 吴辉 余善法

摘要:

目的  探讨职业紧张及其相关因素对列车司机抑郁症状的影响。方法  采用整群抽样方法,于2012年3月抽取某铁路局机务段1 500名男性列车司机进行面对面访谈式问卷调查,剔除人口学特征调查表变量缺失者,以及职业紧张相关因素调查表和抑郁症状自评量表3个条目以上应答缺失者问卷后,实际回收有效问卷1 402份。采用抑郁自评量表、付出-回报失衡(ERI)问卷和职业紧张测量工具对列车司机抑郁症状及职业紧张相关因素进行测评。采用χ2检验分析不同人口学特征列车司机抑郁症状发生率的差异;采用多因素非条件logistic回归模型分析职业紧张相关因素对抑郁症状评分的影响。结果  1 402名研究对象年龄为(34.95±9.20)岁,工龄为(13.28±9.78)年。全部研究对象抑郁症状评分为(24.14±5.98)分,抑郁症状评分<20分有500名,≥20分有902例。肯定有抑郁症状发生率为64.3%(902/1 402),动车或高铁司机肯定有抑郁症状发生率最高,为68.0%(51/75);大专以上学历列车司机的肯定有抑郁症状发生率为68.1%(352/517),高于高中及以下学历(62.1%,550/885)(χ2=5.02, P=0.025)。多因素非条件logistic回归模型分析结果显示,文化程度高(OR=1.63,95%CI: 1.12~2.19)、工作角色冲突多(OR=1.65,95% CI: 1.21~2.24)、工作角色模糊不清(OR=1.99,95% CI: 1.45~2.73)、负性情绪多(OR=2.87,95%CI: 2.15~3.82)、每日紧张程度大(OR=2.86,95 %CI: 2.11~3.86)、同事和家庭支持少(OR=1.55, 95%CI: 1.11~2.16和OR=1.75,95%CI: 1.27~2.41)是抑郁症状的危险因素,而正性情绪多(OR=0.72,95%CI: 0.53~0.96)、自尊感强(OR=0.22,95%CI: 0.16~0.30)和工作自身满意度高(OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.35~0.65)是列车司机抑郁症状的保护因素。结论  列车司机,尤其是动车或高铁司机是抑郁症状的高发人群;合理安排工作角色和工作任务,增加上级、家庭和同事的支持,培养健康、协调的个性,保持良好的情绪、缓解每日紧张感和增加对工作的满意感是列车司机抑郁症状的主要保护因素。

关键词:职业卫生;抑郁;横断面研究;列车司机;职业紧张

Abstract:

Objective  To explore the influence of occupational stress and related factors on depression symptoms in train drives.Methods  In March 2012, by using cluster sampling method, a cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 1 402 train drivers in China. Questionnaires was investigation was conducted by face to face interview. Sample with missing variables on demographic characteristics questionnaire with missed survey variables, and occupational stress related factors and with over 3 item missing in depression symptoms self-rating scale were exclued. Depression symptoms were measured by Center for Epidemiological Survey Depression Scale. The occupational stress related actors were measured by the revised effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaires and occupational stress measurement scale. Chi-square test was carried out to analyze the differences of the incidence of depressive symptoms among different general characteristics groups, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the influence of occupational stress and related factors on depression symptoms in train drivers.Results  The study showed that the average age of 1 402 subjects was (34.95±9.20) years, the length of service were (13.28±9.78) years, the score of depressive symptoms was (24.14±5.98) scores. 902 subjects (64.3%,902/1 402) were classified as people with depressive symptoms, the incidence of depressive symptoms in EMU or high-speed train drivers were the highest (68.0%,51/75); Incidence of depressive symptoms showed that were statistically significant differences in two groups of technical secondary school and college, and incidence of depressive symptoms in the junior college and above group (68.1%,352/517) was higher than that in the senior high school and below group (62.1%,550/885) (χ2=5.02, P=0.025). The results of the multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that high levels of education (OR=1.63, 95%CI: 1.12-2.19), role conflict (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.21-2.24), role ambiguity (OR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.45-2.73), negative emotion(OR=2.87, 95%CI: 2.15-3.82), daily tension(OR=2.86, 95%CI: 2.11-3.86), poor colleagues and family support (OR=1.55, 95% CI: 1.11-2.16 and OR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.27-2.41) were risk factors of depressive symptoms, but positive emotion (OR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.53-0.96), self-esteem (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.16-0.30), and job itself satisfaction (OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.35-0.65) were protective factors of depressive symptoms in train drivers.Conclusion  Train drivers, in particular EMU or high-speed train drivers who were prone to depressive symptoms. To arrange reasonably job roles and tasks, increase support from superiors, colleagues, and family, bring up healthy and coordinated personality, keep a good mood, promote job satisfaction, reduce the daily tension have positive effects on reducing the occurrence of depressive symptoms for train drivers.

Key words: Occupational health;Depression;Cross-sectional studies;Train drivers;Occupational stress

发表日期:2015/12

引用本文:

图/表:

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2015.12.012.T001:表1 不同人口学特征列车司机抑郁症状发生率比较(n=1 402)

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2015.12.012.T001:表1 不同人口学特征列车司机抑郁症状发生率比较(n=1 402)

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2015.12.012.T002:表2 职业紧张相关变量不同水平组间抑郁症状评分差异比较(±s,分)

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2015.12.012.T002:表2 职业紧张相关变量不同水平组间抑郁症状评分差异比较(±s,分)

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2015.12.012.T003:表3 影响抑郁症状得分的多因素非条件logistic回归模型分析结果

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2015.12.012.T003:表3 影响抑郁症状得分的多因素非条件logistic回归模型分析结果

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