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中国居民膳食油脂多环芳烃暴露的定量风险评估
作者:曹梦思 王君 张立实 严卫星

摘要:

目的  对中国居民经食用油脂暴露于多环芳烃(PAHs)可能导致的致癌风险进行定量评估。方法  于2013年12月至2014年5月在11个省份的超市、农贸市场、粮油批发市场采集不同油种不同品牌的食用油脂样品100份。采用同位素内标定量-QuEChERS净化-气相色谱-三重四级杆串联质谱法和凝胶渗透色谱自动净化-高效液相色谱-荧光检测法两种方法,同时检测所采样品中欧洲联盟食品安全局优先控制的16种多环芳烃(EU15+1 PAHs)含量。结合2002年中国居民营养与健康状况调查的食用油脂消费量数据,并将我国人群分为成年(>18岁)男女、青少年(13~17岁)男女、学龄儿童(6~12岁)、学龄前儿童(2~5岁)6组,以致癌性为关键毒性效应终点,采用暴露限值(MOE)法建立风险评估模型,定量评估我国人群膳食油脂PAHs暴露的健康风险;暴露评估同时采用点评估和概率评估。结果  100份检测样品中除1份样品未检出EU15+1 PAHs外,其他样品均有检出。EU15+ 1 PAHs检出率范围为3%~98%,平均污染水平范围为0.26~3.26 μg/kg。膳食油脂暴露量的点评估和概率评估结果整体情况基本相同。各组人群PAH8暴露量点评估和概率评估平均值,成年男性为10.03、(9.34±12.61) ng·kg-1·d-1,成年女性为9.95、(9.60±15.04)ng·kg-1·d-1,青少年男性为11.09、(10.84±16.54)ng·kg-1·d-1,青少年女性为10.06、(9.58±12.87)ng·kg-1·d-1,学龄儿童为15.29、(15.62±25.54) ng·kg-1·d-1,学龄前儿童为19.27、(19.22±28.91)ng·kg-1·d-1。各人群平均暴露水平(均值和P50) MOE值均高于10 000,高暴露水平(P95)时学龄儿童和学龄前儿童的MOE值略低于10 000。结论  平均暴露时人群存在健康风险较低,但高暴露下(P95)儿童可能存在一定的健康风险。

关键词:植物油类;烃类,芳香;致癌物,环境;危险性评估

Abstract:

Objective  To assess the quantitative risk of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dietary exposure from edible fats and oils in China.Methods  One hundred samples of edible fats and oils were collected from the supermarkets and the farmers markets in 11 provinces of China from December in 2013 to May in 2014. Then they were tested for EU15+1 PAHs (16 PAHs were controlled in priority by European Food Safety Authority) by two test methods which were QuECHERS-GC-MS-MS and GPC-HPLC-FLD. Data of PAHs concentration and edible fats and oils consumption which were from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002 were combined to evaluate carcinogenic risk of PAHs in edible fats and oils by the method of margin of exposure (MOE). In this process, we divided the population into 6 groups, namely male adults (older than 18 years old), female adults (older than 18), male youths (13-17), female youths (13-17), school-agers (6-12) and preschoolers (2-5), and thought carcinogenicity as the critical toxicity end point of PAHs. Two quantitative risk assessment methods, i.e. point assessment and probability assessment, were used to evaluate the dietary exposure and MOEs.Results  EU15+1 PAHs in one of 100 samples were not detected, other samples were polluted in different degrees; the detection rates were 3%-98% and the average contents were 0.26-3.26 μg/kg. The results of PAHs dietary exposure from both of point assessment and probability assessment were the same. The average exposures of PAH8 were as the following: male adults were 10.03 and (9.34±12.61) ng·kg-1·d-1(The former was from point assessment and the latter from probability assessment, the same below), female adults were 9.95 and (9.60±15.04) ng · kg-1·d -1, male youths were 11.09 and (10.84±16.54) ng·kg-1·d-1, female youths were 10.06 and (9.58±12.87) ng·kg-1·d-1,school-agers were 15.29 and (15.62±25.54) ng·kg-1·d-1, preschoolers were 19.27 and (19.22±28.91) ng·kg-1·d-1. MOEs of mean and 50% exposure levels in different group of people were more than 10 000, while MOEs of 95% exposure levels in school-agers and preschoolers were less than 10 000.Conclusion  For general consumers, the health risk of PAHs exposure is very low. However, for high-end consumers (95% exposure level) from the sensitive groups (school-ager and preschooler) has a potential health risk.

Key words: Plant oils;Hydrocarbons, aromatic;Carcinogens, environmental;Risk assessment

发表日期:2016/2

引用本文:

图/表:

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2016.02.012.T001:表1 食用油脂中PAH8、PAH4和苯并(a)芘的含量(μg/kg ,n=100)

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2016.02.012.T001:表1 食用油脂中PAH8、PAH4和苯并(a)芘的含量(μg/kg ,n=100)

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2016.02.012.T002:表2 各组人群油脂多环芳烃膳食暴露量的点评估结果(ng·kg-1·d-1)

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2016.02.012.T002:表2 各组人群油脂多环芳烃膳食暴露量的点评估结果(ng·kg-1·d-1)

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2016.02.012.T003:表3 各组人群油脂多环芳烃膳食暴露量的概率评估结果(ng·kg-1·d-1)

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2016.02.012.T003:表3 各组人群油脂多环芳烃膳食暴露量的概率评估结果(ng·kg-1·d-1)

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2016.02.012.T004:表4 各组人群油脂多环芳烃致癌风险评估的暴露限值

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2016.02.012.T004:表4 各组人群油脂多环芳烃致癌风险评估的暴露限值

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