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父母教养方式及其一致性与学龄前儿童情绪和行为问题的关联研究
作者:邹长姗 丁鹏 耿梦龙 伍晓艳 李十月 陶舒曼 王磊 陈佳 彭磊 汪素美 殷刚柱 张安慧 邓虹 汤银霞 马玉巧 黄惠萍 向敏 陶芳标

摘要:

目的  探讨父母教养方式及其一致性与学龄前儿童情绪和行为问题的关联。方法  于2017年10—11月,采用整群抽样方法,以湖北、安徽、江苏11个城市的109所幼儿园为研究现场,将3~6岁的儿童纳入研究,共27 987名,回收有效问卷(问卷均由家长或主要监护人填写完成)27 200份。采用"长处和困难问卷"和"父母行为量表"收集学龄前儿童情绪和行为问题并对父母教养方式进行评定,并分析不同特征的学龄前儿童情绪和行为异常率的差异;以学龄前儿童情绪和行为问题为因变量,以父母支持/参与和强制/敌意为自变量,采用多因素logistic回归模型分析学龄前儿童情绪和行为问题与父母教养方式及其一致性的关联。结果  27 200名研究对象的年龄为(4.35±0.96)岁,男性13 975名(51.4%),城市儿童24 634名(90.6%),独生子女17 916名(65.9%)。父母双方支持/参与均高占14.9%,均低11.9%;父母双方强制/敌意均高占15.2%,均低11.3%。学龄前儿童情绪症状、品行行为、多动行为、同伴交往、困难总分、亲社会行为异常率分别为9.5%、9.5%、18.2%、24.5%、11.2%和10.2%。多因素logistic回归模型分析显示,调整性别、独生子女、居住地区、家庭经济状况、母亲年龄和文化程度、父亲文化程度等因素后,与父亲/母亲高支持/参与、低强制/敌意的学龄前儿童相比,父亲/母亲低支持/参与和高强制/敌意者情绪症状、品行行为、多动行为、同伴交往、困难总分和亲社会行为出现异常的风险较高(P值均<0.05);与父母双方均高支持/参与、均低强制/敌意的学龄前儿童相比,父母双方均低支持/参与和均高强制/敌意者情绪症状、品行行为、多动行为、同伴交往、困难总分和亲社会行为出现异常的风险较高(P值均<0.05)。结论  父母教养方式及其一致性与学龄前儿童情绪和行为问题相关。

关键词:儿童,学龄前;情绪;行为;横断面研究;教养方式

Abstract:

Objective  To explore the effect of parental rearing patterns and their consistency on the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children.Methods  From October to November 2017, 27 987 children aged 3 to 6 years old from 109 kindergartens in 11 cities of Hubei, Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces were selected by using the cluster sampling method. A total of 27 200 valid questionnaires which were completed by subjects' parents were collected. The emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children were collected by "strengths and difficulties questionnaire" and the parental rearing patterns were evaluated by the "Parental Behavior Scale". The differences in emotional and behavioral abnormality rates of preschool children with different characteristics were analyzed; with emotional and behavioral problems as dependent variables and parental support/participation and compulsion/hostility as independent variables, the multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the effect of parental rearing patterns and their consistency on the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children.Results  The age of children was (4.35±0.96) years old, and 51.4% of children were 13 975 males. There were 24 634 (90.6%) urban children and 17 916 (65.9%) only children. Both parents with strong support/participation accounted for 14.9%, and those with poor support/participation accounted for 11.9%; both parents with strong compulsion/hostility accounted for 15.2%, and those with low compulsion/hostility accounted for 11.3%. The rates of emotional symptoms, conduct behavior, hyperactive behavior, peer interaction, total difficulty score, and abnormal prosocial behavior of preschool children were 9.5%, 9.5%, 18.2%, 24.5%, 11.2%, and 10.2%, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression model analysis showed that after adjusting for gender, only child, living area, family economic status, mother′s age and education level, father′s education level, and other factors, compared with fathers/mothers with strong support/participation and low compulsion/hostility and parents with strong support/participation and low compulsion/hostility, preschool children who had fathers/mothers with poor support/participation and strong compulsion/hostility or parents with poor support/participation and strong compulsion/hostility were more likely to have emotional symptoms, conduct behavior, hyperactive behavior, peer interaction, total difficulty score, and abnormal prosocial behavior (P<0.05).Conclusions  Parental rearing patterns and their consistency are related to the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children.

Key words: Child, preschool;Emotions;Behavior;Cross-sectional studies;Rearing styles

发表日期:2020/3

引用本文:

图/表:

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2020.03.008.T001:表1 2017年湖北、安徽、江苏3省11个城市学龄前儿童情绪和行为问题检出情况比较[n(%),N=27 200]

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2020.03.008.T001:表1 2017年湖北、安徽、江苏3省11个城市学龄前儿童情绪和行为问题检出情况比较[n(%),N=27 200]

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2020.03.008.T002:表2 2017年湖北、安徽、江苏11个城市学龄前儿童情绪和行为异常率比较[n(%)]

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2020.03.008.T002:表2 2017年湖北、安徽、江苏11个城市学龄前儿童情绪和行为异常率比较[n(%)]

  • 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2020.03.008.T003:表3 父母教养方式及其一致性与学龄前儿童情绪和行为异常关联的多因素logistic回归模型分析[OR(95%CI)]

    10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2020.03.008.T003:表3 父母教养方式及其一致性与学龄前儿童情绪和行为异常关联的多因素logistic回归模型分析[OR(95%CI)]

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